Martha's Vineyard Atlas of LifeSpecies ListsPlantsFlora: Checklist (2008)

Martha's Vineyard Flora: Checklist (2008)



Checklist of the Vascular Plants Comprising the Flora of Martha’s Vineyard & Dukes County Massachusetts (Including Nomans Land)

This checklist has been based on the work of Sorrie and Somers (1999) and Swanson and Knapp (1999) and acknowledgement of these earlier authors is made with great gratitude for their pioneering work and significant contributions to our knowledge of the Vineyard flora.  Entries in this checklist followed by an asterisk (*) constitute new records for Dukes County and follow the report submitted in December, 2005, by Arthur Haines, Research Botanist, New England Wild Flower Society, based on his and previous work on Nomans Land. A copy of his report is available for study at the PHA Library.

Geographic affinity is given for so-called “indicator species.” A “B” following the taxon entry indicates a northern or boreal affinity, while a “CP” signifies a coastal plain or southwestern affinity. Names mentioned in parenthesis are ones used for the taxon listed here in the Flora of Martha’s Vineyard (Swanson & Knapp, 1999).


Phylum Lycophyta


(Quillwort Family)

Isoetes tuckermanii A. Br. ex Engelman – Tuckerman’s Quillwort (as var. plenospora A. A. Eaton)


(Club Moss Family) 

Diphasiastrum digitatum (A. Br.) Holub – Southern Ground Cedar, Fan Clubmoss (as var. flabelliforme Fern.)

Diphasiastrum tristachyum (Pursh) Holub – Slender or Wiry Ground Cedar

Huperzia lucidula (Michaux) Trev. – Shinning Clubmoss

Lycopodiella appressa (Chapman) Cranfill – Southern or Bog Clubmoss

Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub – Northern Bog Clubmoss – CP 

Lycopodium clavatum L. – Common Clubmoss – B 

Lycopodium obscurum L. – Ground or Princess Pine – B 

Phylum Spenophyta


(Horsetail Family)

Equisetum arvense L. – Common Horsetail

Phylum Filicinophyta


(Maidenhair Fern Family)

Adiantum pedatum L.  – Maidenhair Fern


(Spleenwort Family)

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) B.S.P. – Ebony Spleenwort


(Chain Fern Family)

Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore – Netted Chain Fern

Woodwardia virginica (L.) Smith – Virginia Chain Fern – CP 


(Hay-scented Fern Family)

Dennstaedtia punctiloba (Michaux) T. Moore – Hay-scented Fern

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller – Pine Barrens Bracken – CP 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. Ex A. Heller – Bracken


(Wood Fern Family)

Athyrium felix-femina (L.) Roth var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson – Northern Lady Fern

Athyrium felix-femina (L.) Roth var. asplenoides (Michaux) Farw. – Southern Lady Fern

Dryopteris x boottii (Tuckerman) Underw. (D. cristata x D. intermedia) – Boott’s Wood Fern

Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H. P. Fuchs (= spinulosa O. F. Mueller) Watt) – Spinulose Wood Fern

Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray – Crested Wood Fern

Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) A. Gray – Fancy Wood Fern

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray – Marginal Wood Fern

Dryopteris x ulignosa (A. Br. Ex Dowell) Druce – Swamp Wood Fern

Onoclea sensibilis L. – Sensitive Fern

Polystichum acrosticoides (Michaux) Schott – Christmas Fern


(Adder’s Tongue Family)

Botrychium dissectum Sprengel – Dissected of Cut-leaved Grape Fern

Botrychium multifidum (Gmelin) Rupr. – Leathery Grape Fern

Ophioglossum pusillum Raf. – Adder’s Tounge Fern (O. vulgatum L. var. pseudopodium (Blake) Farw.)


(Flowering Fern Family)

Osmunda cinnamomea L. – Cinnamon Fern

Osmunda claytoniana L. – Interrupted Fern

Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray – Royal Fern


(Polypody Family)

Polypodium virginianum L. – Common Polypody


(Marsh Fern Family)

Phegopteris connectilis (Michaux) Watt – Northern or Narrow Beech Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. – New York Fern

Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens (Lawson) Fern. – Marsh Fern

Thelypteris simulata (Davenp.) Nieuwl. – Massachusetts Fern – CP 


Phylum Coniferophyta


(Cypress Family)

Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P. – Atlantic White Cedar – CP 

Juniperis communis L. – Common or Pasture Cedar – Introduced?

Juniperus virginiana L. – Eastern Red Cedar

Thuja occidentalis L. – Arbor Vitae, Northern Red Cedar – Introduced


(Pine Family)

Larix decidua P. Miller – European Larch – Introduced

Picea abies (L.) Karsten – Norway Spruce – Introduced

Picea glauca (Moench) Voss – White Spruce – Introduced

Picea pungens Engelman – Colorado Blue Spruce – Introduced

Pinus banksiana Lamb. – Jack Pine – Introduced 

Pinus resinosa Aiton – Red Pine – Introduced 

Pinus rigida Miller – Pitch Pine

Pinus strobus L. – White Pine – Introduced

Pinus sylvestris L. – Scotch Pine – Introduced 


Phylum Anthophyta




(Maple Family)

Acer platanoides L. – Norway Maple – Introduced

Acer pseudoplatanus L. Sycamore Maple – Introduced

Acer rubrum L. – Red Maple


(Amaranth Family)

Amaranthus albus L. – Tumbleweed – Introduced

Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson – Tumbleweed – Introduced

Amaranthus pumilus Raf. – Seabeach Amaranth – CP 

Amaranthus retroflexus L. – Pigweed – Introduced


(Sumac or Poison Ivy Family)

Rhus copallina L. var. latifolia Engler – Winged Sumac

Rhus glabra L. – Smooth Sumac – B 

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth (R. typhina L.) – Staghorn Sumac

Rhus x pulvinata Greene (R. glabra x R. hirta

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze – Poison Ivy

Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze – Poison Sumac


(Carrot Family)

Angelica lucida L. – Seaside Angelica – B 

Cicuta bulbifera L. – Bulblet Water Hemlock

Cicuta maculata L. – Water Hemlock

Conium maculatum L. – Poison Hemlock – Introduced

Coriandrum sativum L. – Coriander – Introduced

Daucus carota L. – Queen Anne’s Lace – Introduced

Foeniculum vulgare Miller – Fennel – Introduced 

Heracleum maximum Bartram (H. lanatum Michaux) – Cow Parsnip

Hydrocotyle americana L. – Swamp or Woodland Pennywort

Hydrocotyle umbellata L. – Water or Pondshore Pennywort – CP 

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. var. triradiata (A. Richard) Fern. – Saltpond Pennywort – CP 

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. var. verticillata – Saltpond Pennywort – CP 

Ligusticum scothicum L. – Scotch or Sea Lovage – B 

Pimpinella saxifraga L. – Burnet-saxifrage – Introduced 

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michaux) Raf. – Mock Bishop’s Weed – CP 

Sanicula canadensis L. – Canadian Sanicle – CP 

Sanicula marilandica L. Black Snakeroot

Sium suave Walter – Water Parsnip


(Dogbane Family)

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. – Spreading or Pink Dogbane

Apocynum cannabinum L. – Indian Hemp

Apocynum x floribundum Greene – (A. androsaemifolium x A. cannabinum)

Vinca minor L. – Periwinkle, Myrtle – Introduced 


(Holly Family)

Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray – Inkberry – CP 

Ilex laevigata (Pursh) A. Gray – Smooth Winterberry*

Ilex opaca Aiton – Holly or American Holly – CP 

Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray – Winterberry, Black Alder


(Aralia Family)

Aralia hispida Vent. – Bristly Sarsaparilla 

Aralia nudicaulis L. – Wild Sarsaparilla

Hedera helix L. – English Ivy – Introduced


(Milkweed Family)

Asclepias amplexicaulis J. E. Smith – Blunt- or Wavy-leaved Milkweed

Asclepias exaltata L. – Poke or Tall Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata L. ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. Ex Willd.) Woodson – Downy Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias purpurascens L. – Purple Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca L. – Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa L. – Butterfly Weed

Asclepias verticillata L. – Whorled Milkweed – CP 


(Aster or Sunflower Family)

Achillea millefolium L. var. millefolium – Yarrow – Introduced 

Achillea millefolium L. var. occidentalis DC. (A. millefolium var. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper) – Seaside Yarrow

Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H. E. Robinson – White Snakeroot — Introduced

Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach – Lesser Snakeroot, Aromatic Boneset

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. elatior (L.) Descourtils – Ragweed

Ambrosia coronopifolia Torrey & A. Gray (A. psilostachya DC. var. coronopifolia (Torrey & A. Gray) Farw.) – Western Ragweed

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Bentham & Hooker – Pearly Everlasting – B 

Antennaria neglecta Greene – Pussytoes

Antennaria neodioica Greene (A. neglecta var. neodioica (Greene) Cronq.) – Greene’s Pussytoes

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson – Plantain-leaved Pussytoes

Anthemis cotula L. – Stinking Chamomile – Introduced

Arctium minus Bernh. – Burdock – Introduced 

Artemisia campestris L. ssp. caudata (Michaux) Hall & Clements – Seaside Wormwood

Artemisia pontica L. – Roman Wormwood – Introduced 

Artemisia stelleriana Besser – Dusty Miller, Beach Wormwood – Introduced

The genus Aster has recently been divested of the majority of its species in the New World, and Vineyard taxa have been placed in the segregate genera Doellingeria, Eurybia, Inoactis, Oclemena, Sericocarpus, and Symphyotrichum, which are included below. Ironically but thankfully, the common name of aster is retained for all, regardless of generic placement.

Baccharis halimifolia L. – Groundsel Tree, Sea Myrtle – CP

Balsamita major Desf. (Chrysanthemum balsamita L.) – Costmary – Introduced  

Bidens connata Muhl. Ex Wild. – Sticktights – CP 

Bidens discoidea (Torrey & A. Gray) Britton – Buttonbush Beggar-ticks

Bidens frondosa L. – Beggar-ticks, Sticktights

Centaurea biebersteinii DC. (C. maculosa Lam.) – Bushy Knapweed — Introduced

Centaurea x debeauxii Gren. & Godr. Ssp. thuillieri Dostal – Introduced

Centaurea nigra L. – Black Knapweed – Introduced  

Centaurea nigrescens Willd. (C. dubia Suter)  – Knapweed – Introduced 

Chichorium intybus L. – Chicory, Blue Sailors – Introduced 

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. – Canada Thistle – Introduced

Cirsium discolor (Muhl. Ex Willd.) Sprengel – Field Thistle

Cirsium horridulum Michaux – Yellow Thistle

Cirsium muticum Michaux – Swamp Thistle 

Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.) Sprengel – Pasture Thistle

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore – Bull or Common Thistle — Introduced

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. canadensis – Horseweed

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq. – Coastal or Dwarf Horseweed

Coreopsis lanceolata L. – Coreopsis – Introduced

Coreopsis rosea Nutt. – Pink Tickseed, Pink Coreopsis – CP 

Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. – Plains or Gardens Tickseed – Introduced 

Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr. – Smooth Hawk’s Beard – Introduced

Doellingeria umbellata (Miller) Nees (Aster umbellatus Miller) – Tall Flat-topped White Aster

Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. – Prairie Coneflower – Introduced

Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. hieraciifolia – Pilewort

Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. megalocarpa (Fern.) Cronq. – Seaside Pilewort

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. – Daisy Fleabane

Erigeron pulchellus Michaux – Robin’s Plantain

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. – Rough Fleabane

Eupatorium dubium Willd. ex Poiret – Atlantic Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt – Trumpetweed 

Eupatorium hyssopifolium  L. – Hyssop-leaved Boneset – CP

Eupatorium maculatum L. – Mottled Joe Pye Weed  

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. – Boneset

Eupatorium pilosum Walter – Rough or Verbena Boneset – CP 

Eurybia divaricata (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster divaricatus L.) – White Wood Aster

Eurybia radula (Aiton) G. L. Nesom (Aster radula Aiton) – Rough Aster 

Eurybia spectabilis (Aiton) G. L. Nesom (Aster spectabilis Aiton) – Showy Aster – CP 

Euthamia caroliniana Greene – Slender Goldentop*

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. var. gaminifolia – Grass-leaf or Flat-top Goldenrod

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. var. nuttallii (Greene) Stone – Bushy Flat-top Goldenrod

Euthamia tenuifolia (Pursh) Nutt. – Coastal Plain Flat-top Goldenrod – CP 

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pavon – Hairy Quickweed – Introduced

Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera (Gnaphalium purpureum L.) – Purple Cudweed – CP 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. – Sweet Everlasting

Gnaphalium uliginosum L. – Low Cudweed

Helenium flexuosum Raf. – Purple-headed Sneezeweed – Introduced 

Helianthus annuus L. – Common Sunflower – Introduced

Helianthus divaricatus L. – Woodland Sunflower

Helianthus strumosus L. Rough-leaved Woodland Sunflower

Hieracium caespitosum Dumort – Meadow or Field Hawkweed – Introduced 

Hieracium canadense Michaux var. fasciculatum (Pursh) Fern. (H. kalmii L. var. fasciculatum (Pursh) LePage) – Canada Hawkweed

Hieracium x fernaldii Lepage – (H. canadense x H. scabrum

Hieracium x flagellare Willd. – (H. caespitosum x H. pilosella) – Whip Hawkweed – Introduced 

Hieracium gronovii L. – Hairy Hawkweed – CP

Hieracium lachenalii C. Gmellin – European Hawkweed – Introduced

Hieracium x marianum Willd. – (H. venosum x gronovii or scabrum) – Maryland Hawkweed   

Hieracium paniculatum L. – Woodland Hawkweed

Hieracium pilosella L. – Mouse-ear Hawkweed – Introduced 

Hieracium piloselloides Vill. – Smooth Hawkweed — Introduced

Hieracium scabrum Michaux – Rough Hawkweed

Hieracium venosum L. var. nudicaule (Michaux) Farw. – Rattlesnake Weed, PoorRobin’s Plantain

Hypochaeris radicata L. – Spotted Cat’s Ear – Introduced

Inula helenium L. – Elecampane – Introduced

Ionactis linariifolius (L.) Greene (Aster linariifolius L.) – Stiff or Spruce Aster 

Iva frutescens L. ssp. oraria (Bartlett) R. C. Jackson – Saltmash Elder, Hightide Bush

Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. – Dwarf Dandelion – CP 

Kuhnia eupatorioides L. – False Boneset – Introduced 

Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern. – Blue Wild Lettuce

Lactuca canadensis L. var. canadensis – Yellow Wild Lettuce

Lactuca canadensis L. var. latifolia Kuntze – Yellow Wild Lettuce

Lactuca hirsuta Muhl. ex. Nutt. var. sanguinea (Bigelow) Fern. – Hairy Wild Lettuce – CP 

Lactuca serriola L. – Prickly Lettuce – Introduced 

Leontodon autumnalis L. – Fall Dandelion, Hawkbit – Intoduced 

Leontodon taraxacoids (Vill.) Merat – von Leysser’s Fall Dandelion – Introduced 

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.) – Oxeye Daisy – Introduced 

Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell – New England Blazing Star

Matricaria discoidea DC. (M. matricarioides (Less.) Porter) – Pineapple Weed – Introduced 

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. – Climbing Hempweed – CP

Oclemena acuminata (Michaux) Greene (Aster acuminatus Michaux) – Sharp-leaved Aster

Oclemena nemoralis (Aiton) Greene (Aster nemoralis Aiton) – Bog Aster 

Pityopsis falcata (Pursh) Nutt. (Chrysopsis falcata (Pursh) Ell.) – Sickle-leaved Aster – CP 

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. var. succulenta (Fern.) Cronq. – Saltmarsh Fleabane

Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh – Lion’s Foot

Prenanthes trifoliata (Cass.) Fern. – Fall Rattlesnake Root

Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farw. – Black-eyed Susan – Introduced 

Rudbeckia triloba L. – Thin-leaved Cone Flower – Introduced

Senecio aureus L. – Golden Ragwort 

Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) Nees (Aster praternus Cronq.) – Toothed White-topped Aster

Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenburg (Aster solidagineus Michaux) – Narrow-leaved White-topped Aster 

Solidago aestivalis Bicknell – Sphagnum Goldenrod

Solidago arguta Aiton – Toothed Goldenrod 

Solidago x asperula Desf. – (S. rugosa x S. sempervirens)

Solidago bicolor L. – Silverrod, White Goldenrod

Solidago caesia L. – Wreath Goldenrod 

Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torrey & A. Gray – Tall Goldenrod

Solidago gigantea Aiton – Late Goldenrod

Solidago juncea Aiton – Early Goldenrod

Solidago latissimifolia P. Miller (S. elliottii Torrey & A. Gray var. ascendens Fern.) – Coastal Goldenrod – CP 

Solidago nemoralis Aiton – Field Goldenrod

Solidago odorata Aiton – Sweet Goldenrod

Solidago puberula Nutt. – Downy Goldenrod – CP 

Solidago rugosa P. Miller – Rough-stemmed Goldenrod

Solidago sempervirens L. – Seaside Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa Nutt. var. erecta (Pursh) MacM. (S. erecta Pursh) – Slender Goldenrod

Solidago uliginosa Nutt. – Swamp Goldenrod

Solidago ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd. – Elm-leaved Goldenrod 

Sonchus arvensis L. – Field or Sow Thistle – Introduced 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill – Spiny Sow Thistle – Introduced

Sonchus oleraceus L. – Annual Sow Thistle – Introduced

Symphyotrichum concolor (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster concolor L.) – Eastern Silvery Aster – CP 

Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster cordifolius L.) – Blue Heart-leaved Aster

Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G. L. Nesom  var. dumosum  (Aster dumosus L.; including var. cordifolius (Michaux) Torrey & A. Gray) –  Bushy, Long-stalked or Rice-button Aster – CP 

Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G. L. Nesom  var. subulifolium (Torrey & A. Gray) G. L. Nesom – Bushy, Long-stalked or Rice-button Aster – CP 

Symphyotrichum dumosum x S. lateriflorum var. angustifolium (Aster dumosus x A. vimineus)

Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster ericoides L.) – Heath White Aster

Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) A. & D. Love (Aster laevis L.) – Smooth Aster

Symphyotrichum leave (L.) A. & D. Love var. laeve x S. praealtum (Poir.) G. L. Nesom (Aster novi-belgii L. var. litoreus A. Gray) – New York Aster 

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom (Aster lanceolatus Willd.) – Panicled Aster

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Love & D. Love var. horizontale (Desf.) G. L. Nesom (Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton var. horizontalis (Desf.) Farw.) – Calico or Goblet Aster 

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Love & D. Love var. lateriflorum (Aster lateriflorus(L.) Britton var. lateriflorus) – Calico or Goblet Aster

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster novae-angliae L.) – New England Aster

Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster novi-belgii L.) – New York Aster

Symphyotrichum patens (Aiton) G. L. Nesom (Aster patens Aiton) – Skydrop or Clasping Aster 

Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom var. pringlei (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom (Aster pilosus Willd.) – Pringle’s Aster

Symphotrichum puniceum (L.) A. & D. Love (Aster puniceous L.) – Purple-stemmed Aster

Symphyotrichum racemosum (Elliott) G. L. Nesom (Aster racemosus Elliott) – Small White Aster

Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michaux) G. L. Nesom (Aster subulatus Michaux) – Small- flowered or Annual Saltmarsh Aster – CP 

Symphyotrichum tenuifolium (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster tenuifolius L.) – Large-flowered or Saltmarsh Aster – CP 

Symphyotrichum undulatum (L.) G. L. Nesom (Aster undulatus L.) – Wavy-leaved or Clasping Heart-leaf Aster  

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. (Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh.) – Feverfew – Introduced 

Tanacetum vulgare L. – Tansy – Introduced

Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC. – Red-seeded Dandelion – Introduced 

Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers – Dandelion – Introduced 

Tragopogon dubius Scop. – Thick-stemmed Goat’s Beard – Introduced

Tragopogon pratensis L. – Yellow Goat’s Beard – Introduced  

Tussilago farfara L. – Colt’s-foot – Introduced 

Xanthium strumarium L. var. canadense (P. Miller) Torrey & A. Gray – Cocklebur


(Touch-Me-Not Family)

Impatiens capensis Meerb. – Jewelweed


(Barberry Family)

Berberis thunbergii DC. – Japanese Barberry – Introduced

Berberis vulgaris L. – European Barberry – Introduced


(Birch Family)

Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) Clausen – Speckled Alder

Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd. – Smooth Alder

Betula papyrifera Marsh. – Paper or Canoe Birch – Introduced 

Betula pendula Roth – Silver or Weeping Birch – Introduced

Betula populifolia Marsh. – Gray Birch – B 

Betula pubescens Ehrh. – Downy or White Birch – Introduced

Carpinus caroliniana Walter – Ironwood, Hornbeam, Blue Beech

Corylus americana Walter – Hazelnut, American Filbert

Corylus cornuta Marsh. – Beaked Hazelnut

Ostrya virginiana (P. Miller) K. Koch – Hop Hornbeam, Ironwood


(Bignonia or Trumpet Creeper Family)

Catalpa bignonioides Walter – Catalpa, Indian Bean Tree – Introduced


(Borage Family)

Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & Drummond – Chinese Forget-Me-Not – Introduced

Echium vulgare L. – Viper’s Bugloss – Introduced

Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill – Field Scorpion Grass – Introduced

Myosotis scorpioides L. – True Foreget-me-not – Introduced 

Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. – Garden Foregt-me-not – Introduced 

Myosotis verna Nutt. – Spring Scorpion Grass

Onosmodium virginianum (L.) A. DC. – False Gromwell – CP 


(Mustard Family)

Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara &Grande – Garlic Mustard – Introduced 

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. – Mouse Ear Cress – Introduced

Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer, & Scherb. – Horse Radish – Introduced

Barbarea verna (P. Miller) Ascherson – Early Winter Cress – Introduced

Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. – Winter Cress, Yellow Rocket – Introduced

Berteroa incana (L.) DC. – Hoary Alyssum – Introduced

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. – Brown, Indian, or Chinese Mustard – Introduced

Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch – Black Mustard – Introduced

Brassica rapa L. – Turnip, Field Mustard, Chinese Cabbage – Introduced 

Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hooker – Sea Rocket

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus – Shepard’s Purse – Introduced

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex. Willd. – Common Bittercress

Draba verna L. var. boerhaavii Van Hall – Shortpod Whitlow Grass – Introduced 

Hesperis matronalis L. – Dame’s Rocket – Introduced

Lepidium campestre (L.) Aiton f. – Cow or Field Cress – Introduced

Lepedium virginicum L. – Wild Peppergrass, Poor Man’s Pepper

Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. – Sweet or Seaside Alyssum – Introduced

Raphanus raphanistrum L. – Wild Radish – Introduced

Raphanus sativa L. – Garden Radish – Introduced

Rorippa nastursium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek – Water Cress – Introduced

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser ssp. fernaldiana (Butters & Abbe) Jonsell – Yellow Water Cress

Sinapis alba L. – White Mustard – Introduced

Sisymbrium altissimum L. – Tumbling or Jim Hill Mustard – Introduced

Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. – Hedge Mustard – Introduced

Thlaspi arvense L. – Penny Cress – Introduced


(Butterfly Bush Family)

Buddleja davidii Franchet – Butterfly Bush – Introduced 


(Cabomba Family)

Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmelin – Water Shield


(Water Starwort Family)

Callitriche heterophylla Pursh – Water Starwort

Callitriche palustris L. – Spring Water Starwort 


(Carolina Allspice Family)

Calycanthus floridus L. – Carolina Allspice, Sweet Shrub – Introduced


(Bellflower Family)

Campanula aparinoides Pursh – Marsh Bellflower 

Campanula rapunculoides L. – Creeping Bellflower – Introduced 

Lobelia cardinalis L. – Cardinal Flower

Lobelia dortmanna L. – Water Lobelia

Lobelia spicata Lam. – Spiked Lobelia

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. – Venus’s Looking-glass


(Hemp Family)

Cannabis sativa L. – Marijuana, Hemp – Introduced ?

Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc. – Japanese Hops – Introduced

Humulus lupulus L. – Hops – Introduced


(Honeysuckle Family)

Lonicera japonica Thunb. – Japanese Honeysuckle – Introduced

Lonicera morrowii A. Gray – Morrow Honeysuckle – Introduced

Sambucus canadensis L. – Black Elderberry

Symphoricarpus albus (L.) Blake – Snowberry – Introduced 

Symphoricarpus orbiculatus Moench – Coralberry – Introduced 

Triosteum perfoliatum L. – Perfoliate Horse Gentian

Viburnum dentatum L. var. lucidum Aiton – Northern or Smooth Arrow-wood

Viburnum dentatum L. var. venosum (Britton) Gleason – Southern Arrow-wood

Viburnum nudum L. var. cassinoides (L.) Torrey & A. Gray – Witherod, Wild Raisin


(Pink or Carnation Family)

Agrostemma githago L. – Corn Cockle – Introduced

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. – Thyme-leaved Sandwort – Introduced

Cerastium arvense L. – Field Chickweed

Cerastium fontanum Baumg. ssp. vulgare (Hartman) Greuter & Burdet (C. fontanum ssp. triviale (Link) Jalas) – Mouse-ear Chickweed – Introduced 

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. – Sticky Mouse-ear Chickweed – Introduced

Cerastium semidecandrum L. – Chickweed – Introduced* 

Dianthus armeria L. – Deptford Pink – Introduced 

Dianthus barbatus L. – Sweet William – Introduced 

Dianthus deltoides L. – Maiden Pink – Introduced

Dianthus plumarius L. – Garden or Grass Pink – Introduced 

Gypsophila paniculata L. – Baby’s Breath – Introduced

Honckenya peploides (L.) Ehrh. – Beach Sandwort, Sea Chickweed, Sea Purslane 

Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl (Arenaria lateriflora L.) – Gove Sandwort 

Sagina decumbens (Ell.) Torrey & A. Gray – Trailing Pearlwort – Native?

Sagina procumbens L. – Matted Pearlwort, Birdseye – Introduced? – B 

Saponaria officinalis L. – Bouncing Bet, Soapwort – Introduced

Scleranthus annuus L. – Annual Knawel – Introduced

Silene antirrhina L. – Sleepy Catchfly

Silene armeria L. – Garden Catchfly – Introduced

Silene dioica (L.) Claiarville – Red Campion or Cockle – Introduced

Silene latifolia Poir. ssp. alba (P. Miller) Greuter & Burdet – White Campion or Cockle – Introduced 

Silene noctiflora L. – Night-flowering Catchfly – Introduced 

Silene pendula L. – Nodding Catchfly – Introduced 

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke – Bladder Campion – Introduced 

Spergula arvensis L. – Spurrey, Corn Spurrey – Introduced 

Spergularia canadensis (Pers.) G. Don – Northern or Lesser Sand Spurrey 

Spergularia marina (L.) Griesb. Saltmarsh Sand Spurrey*

Spergularia rubra (L.) J. & K. Presl – Red, Roadside, or Common Sand Spurrey – Introduced 

Spergularia salina J. & K. Presl – Saltmarsh Sand Spurrey 

Stellaria graminea L. – Common, Meadow, or Field Stichwort – Introduced

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. – Common Chickweed – Introduced


(Bittersweet Family)

Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. – Oriental Bittersweet – Introduced 

Cleastrus scandens L. – American Bittersweet, Waxwork

Euonymus europea L. – European Spindle Tree – Introduced 


(Goosefoot Family)

Atriplex cristata Heyne – Introduced*

Atriplex glabriuscula Edmondston – Introduced*

Atriplex patula L. – Narrow-leaved Orach

Atriplex pentandra (Jacq.) Standley (A. arenaria Nutt.) – Seabeach or Sand Orache

Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. (A. hastata L.) – Halberd-leaf Orache – truly native?

Bassia hirsuta (L.) Aschers. – Downy Seabite – Introduced

Chenopodium album L. – Pigweed, Lamb’s Quarters – Introduced 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. – Wormseed, Mexican Tea – Introduced

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. var. macrocalycium (Aellen) Cronq. – Pitseed Pigweed*

Chenopodium glaucum L. – Oak-leaf or Saltpond Goosefoot – Introduced

Chenopodium macrocalycinum Aellen – Seabeach Pigweed

Chenopodium pratericola Rydb. – White Pigweed

Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. – Ridged or Pygmy Goosefoot – Introduced

Chenopodium rubrum L. – Coast Blite, Red Goosefoot

Salicornia bigelovii Torrey – Dwarf Glasswort 

Salicornia maritima Wolff & Jefferies (S. europaea L.)– Glasswort

Salicornia virginica L. – Perennial Saltwort, Glasswort

Salsola caroliniana Walter – Carolina Saltwort

Salsola kali L. – Prickly Saltwort

Suaeda linearis (Ell.) Moq. – Slender or Erect Sea Blite

Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. – Saltmarsh Sea Blite


(Rockrose Family)

Helianthemum bicknelii Fern. – Bicknell’s Frostweed or Rockrose – CP 

Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michaux – Canadian Frostweed or Rockrose – CP 

Helianthemum dumosum (Bicknell) Fern. – Bushy Frostweed or Rockrose

Helianthemum propinquum Bicknell – Low Frostweed or Rockrose

Hudsonia ericoides L. – Golden Heather – CP 

Hudsonia ericoides L. x H. tomentosa Nutt. 

Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. – Hudsonia, Beach Heather

Lechea maritima Leggett ex. B.S.P. – Beach Pinweed – CP 

Lechea minor L. – Thyme-leaved Pinweed

Lechea mucronata Raf. – Hairy Pinweed – CP 

Lechea pulchella var. moniliformis (Bicknell) Seymour – Beaded Pinweed – CP 

Lechea pulchella Raf. var. pulchella – Leggett’s Pinweed – CP 


(White Alder Family)

Clethra  alnifolia L. – Summersweet, Sweet Pepper Bush, White Alder – CP 


(Saint John’s-Wort Family)

Hypericum boreale (Britton) Bicknell – Northern Dwarf St. John’s-Wort – B 

Hypericum canadense L. – Canadian St. John’s-Wort

Hypericum dissimulatum Bicknell – Bicknell’s St. John’s-Wort

Hypericum ellipticum Hooker – Pale St. John’s-Wort

Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B.S.P. – Pineweed, Orange Grass

Hypericum mutilum L. – Dwarf St. John’s-Wort

Hypericum perforatum L. – Common St. John’s-Wort – Introduced

Hypericum prolificum L. – Shrubby St. John’s-Wort – Introduced 

Hypericum punctatum Lam. – Spotted St. John’s-Wort

Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. – Marsh or Pink St. John’s-Wort – CP 


(Morning Glory Family)

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. americana (Sims) Brummitt – Wild Morning-glory

Convolvulus arvensis L. – Field Bindweed – Introduced

Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. Meyer – Wild Potato Vine – Introduced 


(Dogwood Family)

Cornus alternifolia L. f. – Pagoda or Alternate-leaved Dogwood

Cornus canadensis L. – Bunchberry, Dwarf Cornell – B 

Cornus florida L. – Flowering Dogwood

Cornus racemosa Lam. – Northern Swamp Dogwood, Gray or White Dogwood


(Stonecrop Family)

Crassula aquatica (L.) Schoenl. – Shore Pygmyweed

Sedum acre L. – Wall Sedum, Mossy Stonecrop – Introduced

Sedum telephium L. – Garden Orpine – Introduced 


(Gourd Family)

Cucumis melo L. – Cantaloupe, Honeydew Melon – Introduced

Cucuurbita maxima Dcne. – Squash – Introduced

Echinocystis lobata (Michaux) Torry & A. Gray – Wild or Prickly Cucumber – Native? 

Sicyos angulatus L. – Bur Cucumber 


(Dodder Family)

Cuscuta cephalanthi Engelm. – Buttonbush Dodder

Cuscuta compacta Juss. ex Choisy – Dense or Compact Dodder, Love Vine – CP 

Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex J. A. Schultes – Love Vine, Strangleweed, Swamp Dodder

Cuscuta polygonorum Engelm. – Smartweed Dodder – Native? or Introduced?


(Teasel Family)

Knautia arvensis (L.) Coulter – Blue Buttons or Caps – Introduced


(Sundew Family)

Drosera filiformis Raf. – Trhead-leaf Sundew – CP 

Drosera intermedia Hayne – Spatulate-leaved Sundew – CP 

Drosera rotundifolia L. – Round-leaved Sundew – B 


(Oleaster Family)

Elaeagnus angustifolia L. – Russian Olive, Oleaster, Silverberry – Introduced 

Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. – Autumn Olive, Oleaster – Introduced


(Waterwort Family)

Elatine minima (Nutt.) Fischer & C. A. Meyer – Lesser Waterwort


(Crowberry Family)

Corema conradii (Torrey) Torrey ex Loudon – Broom Crowberry – CP 


(Heath Family)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel ssp. coactilis (Fern. & MacBr.) A. & D. Love & Kapoor – Bearberry, Kinnikinnik, Hog Cranberry – B 

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull – Heather, Scotch Heather – Introduced

Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench (as var. angustifolia (Aiton) Rehder) – Leatherleaf, Cassandra – B 

Epigaea repens L. – Mayflower, Trailing Arbutus

Erica tetralix L. – Crossleaf Heath – Introduced

Gaultheria procumbens L. – Wintergreen, Checkerberry, Teaberry

Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch – Black Huckleberry

Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) Torrey & A. Gray – Dwarf or Bog Huckleberry 

Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) Torrey & A. Gray ex Torrey – Dangleberry, Blue Tangle

Kalmia angustifolia L. – Sheep Laurel, Lambkill, Wicky

Kalmia latifolia L. – Mountain Laurel

Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray (Eubotrys racemosa (L.) Nuttall) – Fetterbush, Swamp Sweetbells – CP 

Lyonia ligustrina (L.) DC. – Maleberry, Male Blueberry

Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torrey – Swamp Azalea or Honeysuckle – CP 

Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton – Lowbush or Low Sweet or Low Late Blueberry

Vaccinium corymbosum L. – Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium fuscatum Aiton – Black Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton – Large or American Cranberry – B 

Vaccinium pallidum Aiton – Early Sweet or Lowbush Blueberry


(Spurge Family)

Acalypha gracilens A. Gray – Slender or Shortstalk Three-seeded Mercury

Acalypha virginica L. – Three-seeded Mercury

Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small (Euphorbia maculata L.) – Milk Purslane, Spotted Spurge, Eyebane

Chamaesyce polygonifolia (L.) Small (Euphorbia polygonifolia L.) – Seaside Spurge – CP 

Euphorbia cyparissias L. – Cypress Spurge – Introduced 

Euphorbia dentata Michaux – Toothed Spurge – Introduced


(Bean or Pea Family)

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. – Hog Peanut

Apios americana Medicus – Groundnut

Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. Ex Aiton f. – Yellow Wild Indigo, Rattleweed

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michaux) Greene – Partridge Pea – CP  

Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench. – Sensitive Plant 

Coronilla varia L. – Crown Vetch – Introduced

Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link – Scotch Broom – Introduced

Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. – Canadian or Showy Tick Trefoil

Desmodium ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. – Hairy Small-leaved Tick Trefoil

Desmodium marilandicum (L.) DC. – Maryland Tick Trefoil

Desmodium nudiflorum (L.) DC. – Naked Tick Trefoil

Desmodium obtusum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. – Stiff Tick Trefoil – CP 

Desmodium perplexum Schubert (D. glabellum (Michaux) DC.) – Dillen’s Tick Trefoil

Desmodium rotundifolium DC. – Prostrate or Round-leaved Tick Trefoil – CP 

Gleditsia triacanthos L. – Honey Locust – Introduced 

Genista tictoria L. – Dyer’s Greenweed, Woad Waxen, Whin – Introduced 

Lathyrus japonicus Willd. var. maritimus (L.) Kartesz & Ghandhi (L. maritimus (L.) Bigelow var. glaber (Ser.) Eames) – Beach Pea – B 

Lathyrus japonicus Willd. var. pellitus Fern. – Beach Pea

Lathyrus latifolius L. – Everlasting or Perennial Pea – Introduced 

Lathyrus palustris L. var. myrtifolius (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray – Marsh Pea, Vetchling

Lathyrus palustris L. var. palustris – Marsh Pea, Vetchling

Lathyrus palustris L. var. pilosus (Cham.) Ledeb. – Marsh Pea, Vetchling

Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Ell. – Narrow-leaved Bush Clover – CP 

Lespedeza x brittonii Bicknell – (L. procumbens x L. virginica)

Lespedeza capitata Michaux – Round-headed Bush Clover – CP 

Lespedeza cyrtobotrya Miq. – Curved Bush Clover – Introduced

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. – Hairy Bush Clover

Lespedeza intermedia (S. Watson) Britton – Wand or Intermediate Bush Clover

Lespedeza x nuttallii Darl. – (L. hirta x L. intermedia) – Nuttall’s Bush Clover

Lespedeza procumbens Michaux – Trailing Bush Clover – CP 

Lespedeza stuevei Nutt. – Stueve’s or Velvety Bush Clover – CP

Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. – Violet Bush Clover  

Lespedeza virginica (L.) Britton – Virginia or Slender Bush Clover – CP 

Lotus corniculatus L. – Birdsfoot Trefoil – Introduced

Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley – Garden Lupine – Introduced ?

Medicago lupulina L. – Black Medick, Nonesuch – Introduced

Medicago sativa L. ssp. falcata (L.) Arcang. – Yellow Alfalfa – Introduced 

Medicago sativa L. ssp. sativa – Blue Alfalfa – Introduced 

Meliotus albus Medicus – Sweet Clover – Introduced

Meliotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – Yellow Sweet Clover – Introduced 

Phaseolus polystachios (L.) BSP. – Wild Bean 

Robinia hispida L. – Bristly Locust, Rose Acacia – Introduced

Robina pseudoacacia L. – Black Locust – Introduced

Strophostyles helvula (L.) Ell. –Beach or Wild Bean – CP 

Strophostyles umbellata (Muhl.) Britt. – Pink Wild Bean – Native?

Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers. – Goat’s Rue – CP 

Trifolium arvense L. – Rabbitfoot Clover – Introduced

Trifolium aureum Pollich – Palmate or Yellow Hop Clover – Introduced

Trifolium campestre Schreber – Pinnate or Low Hop Clover – Introduced 

Trifolium dubium Sibth. – Little Hop Clover – Introduced  

Trifolium hybridum L. – Alsike Clover – Introduced

Trifolium incarnatum L. – Crimson or Italian Clover – Introduced  

Trifolium pratense L. – Red Clover – Introduced 

Trifolium repens L. – White Clover – Introduced

Ulex europaeus L. – Gorse, Furze, Whin – Introduced

Vicia cracca L. – Bird or Cow Vetch, Tufted Vetch – Introduced

Vicia faba L. – Broad Bean – Introduced 

Vicia sativa ssp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. – Narrow-leaved Vetch – Introduced 

Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber – Sparrow Vetch or Four-seeded Vetch – Introduced

Vicia villosa Roth – Hairy or Winter Vetch – Introduced 


(Beech Family)

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. – American Chestnut 

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. – American Beech

Quercus alba L. – White Oak

Quercus coccinea Muenchh. – Scarlet Oak

Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh. – Scrub, Bear, or Holly-leaved Oak – CP 

Quercus prinoides Willd. – Dwarf Chinquapin Oak or Dwarf Chestnut Oak – CP 

Quercus x rehderii Trel. – (Q. ilicifolia x Q. velutina) – Rehder’s Oak

Quercus robur L. – English Oak – Introduced

Quercus rubra L. – Red Oak – Introduced

Quercus stellata Wangenh. – Post Oak – CP  

Quercus x stelloides Palmer – (Q. prinoides x Q. stellata)

Quercus velutina Lam. – Black Oak


(Gentian Family)

Bartonia paniculata (Michaux) Muhl. (as var. intermedia Fern. & var. paniculata) – Screwstem – CP 

Bartonia virginica (L.) BSP. – Screwstem – CP 

Sabatia campanulata (L.) Torrey – Slender Marsh Pink 

Sabatia stellaris Pursh – Sea Pink, Marsh Pink – CP 


(Geranium Family)

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Her. ex Aiton – Redstem Felaree – Introduced 

Geranium carolinianum L. – Carolina Crane’s Bill

Geranium maculatum L. – Wild Geranium, Spotted Crane’s Bill

Geranium pusillum L. – Small or Slender Cranesbill – Introduced 


(Gooseberry Family)

Ribes cynosbati L. – Pasture Gooseberry – Introduced 

Ribes hirtellum Michaux – Swamp or Downy Gooseberry

Ribes rubrum L. (R. sativum (Reichb.) Syme) – Red Currant – Introduced 

Ribes uva-crispa L. – Eeuropean Gooseberry – Introduced 


(Water Milfoil Family)

Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC. – Alternate-flowered Water Milfoil 

Myriophyllum humile (Raf.) Morong – Lowly Water Milfoil

Myriophyllum pinnatum (Walter) B.S.P. – Pinnate Water Milfoil – CP 

Myriophyllum spicatum L. – Spiked or European Water Milfoil – Introduced

Myriophyllum tenellum Bigelow – Leafless Water Milfoil – B 

Proserpinaca palustris L. – Mermaid Weed – CP 


(Witch Hazel Family)

Hamamelis virginiana L. – Witch Hazel


(Walnut Family)

Carya alba (L.) Nutt. Ex Ell. (C. tomentosa (Poiret) Nutt.) – Mockernut or White- hearted Hickory

Carya glabra (P. Miller) Sweet – Pignut or Pignut Hickory

Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg. – Big Shellbark or Shellbark Hickory


(Mint Family)

Ajuga reptans L. – Bugle, Carpet Bugelweed – Introduced

Glechoma hederacea L. – Ground Ivy, Gill-Over-the-Ground – Introduced 

Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. – American Pennyroyal

Leonurus cardiaca L. – Motherwort – Introduced

Leonurus marrubiastrum L. – Horehound-motherwort – Introduced  

Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex W. Barton – American Water Horehound

Lycopus amplectens Raf. – Sessile or Pondshore Horehound – CP

Lycopus rubellus Moench – Stalked Water Horehound 

Lycopus uniflorus Michaux – Northern or Tuberous Horehound

Lycopus virginicus L. – Virginia Horehound

Marrubium vulgare L. – Horehound – Introduced 

Mentha aquatica L. – Water Mint – Introduced 

Mentha arvensis L. – Field Mint – Introduced 

Mentha x gracilis Sole – (M. arvensis x M. spicata) – Spotted or Downy Whorled Mint – Introduced

Mentha x piperita L. – (M. aquatica x M. spicata) – Peppermint – Introduced 

Mentha x rotundifolia (L.) Hudson (M. longifolia x M. suaveolens) – Round-leaved Mint – Introduced 

Mentha spicata L. – Spearmint – Introduced 

Mentha x villosa Hudson – (M. spicata x M. suaveolens) – Wooly Mint – Introduced 

Melissa officinalis L. – Lemon Balm – Introduced 

Nepeta cataria L. – Catnip – Intoduced

Physostegia virginiana (L.) Bentham – False Dragonhead, Obedience – Introduced 

Prunella laciniata (L.) L. – Cut-leaved Healall – Introduced

Prunella vulgaris L. ssp. lanceolata (W. Barton) Hulten – American Heal-all, Self-heal 

Prunella vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris  – Eurasian Heal-all, Self-heal – Introduced 

Pycanathemum incanum (L.) Michaux – Hoary Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum muticum (Michaux) Pers. – Short-toothed Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrader – Slender-leaved Mountain Mint

Salvia pratensis L. – Meadow Clary or Meadow Sage – Introduced

Scutellaria galericulata L. – Marsh or Common Skullcap

Scutellaria laterifolora L. – Mad Dog Skullcap

Scutellaria parvula Michaux – Small or Leonard’s Skullcap – Introduced 

Teucrium canadense L. – Saltmarsh or American Germander, Wood Sage – CP 

Trichostema dichotomum L. – Blue Curls


(Akebia Family)

Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne. – Five-leaved Akebia – Introduced 


(Laurel Family)

Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume – Spicebush

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees – Sassafras


(Bladderwort Family)

Utricularia cornuta Michaux – Horned or Naked Bladderwort

Utricularia geminiscapa Benj. – Twin-scaped, Mixed or Hidden-fruited Bladderwort

Utricularia gibba L. – Humped, Swollen-spurred, or Creeping Bladderwort – CP 

Utricularia macrorhiza Le Conte – Great, Milfoil or Common Bladderwort

Utricularia subulata L. – Slender or Zigzag Bladderwort, Pins – CP 


(Flax Family)

Linum intercursum Bicknell – Sandplain Flax, Bicknell’s Yellow Flax – CP 

Linum medium (Planchon) Britton var. texanum (Planchon) Fern. – Texan Flax or Common Yellow Flax

Linum striatum Walter var. multijugum Fern. – Ridgestem Yellow Flax

Linum usitatissimum L. – Flax – Introduced 

Linum virginianum L. – Woodland, Spreading, or Common Yellow Flax


(Loosestrife Family)

Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. –Water Willow, Water Oleander, Swamp Loosestrife – CP 

Lythrum salicaria L. – Purple of Spiked Loosestrife – Introduced  


(Mallow Family)

Abutilon theophrasti Medicus – Velvett Leaf, Pie-marker – Introduced

Hibiscus moscheutos L. – Rose, Swamp, or Seaside Mallow – CP

Hibiscus trionum L. – Flower-of-an-Hour – Introduced  

Malva moschata L. – Musk Mallow – Introduced 

Malva neglecta Wallr. – Cheeses, Common Mallow – Introduced


(Meadow Beauty Family)

Rhexia virginica L. – Northern Meadow Beauty, Wingstem Meadow Pitchers – CP 


(Buckbean Family)

Menyanthes trifoliata L. (as var. minor Raf.) – Buckbean, Bogbean – B 

Nymphoides cordata (Ell.) Fern. – Floating Heart – CP 


(Indian Chickweed Family)

Mollugo verticillata L. – Carpetweed, Indian Chickweed – Introduced


(Indian Pipe Family)

Monotroa hypopithys L. – Pinesap, False Beech Drops

Monotropa uniflora L. – Indian Pipe


(Mulberry Family)

Morus alba L. – White Mulberry – Introduced


(Bayberry Family)

Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter – Sweet Fern – CP 

Myrica gale L. – Sweet Gale

Myrica pensylvanica Loisel. – Bayberry, Wax Myrtle – CP 


(Four-O’Clock Family)

Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michaux) MacMillan – Four-o’clock, Heart-leaved Umbrellawort – Introduced   


(Water Lily Family)

Nuphar variegata Durand ex Clinton – Spatterdock, Yellow Water-lily

Nymphaea odorata Aiton – White or Fragrant Water-lily


(Sour Gum Family)

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. – Beetlebung, Black or Sour Gum, Tupelo, Pepperidge


(Olive Family)

Fraxinus americana L. – White Ash – Introduced?

Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. – Japanese Privet – Introduced*

Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. – California Privet – Introduced

Ligustrum vlugare L. – Common or Hedge Privet – Introduced 

Syringa vulgaris L. – Lilac – Introduced


(Evening Primrose Family)

Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Aschers & Magnus (as var. canadensis L.) – Enchanter’s Nightshade

Epilobium angustifolium L. – Fireweed, Great Willow-herb – B 

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. – American or Glandular Willow-herb

Epilobium coloratum Biehler – Purple-leaved Willow-herb

Epilobium hirsutum L. – Hairy Willow-herb – Introduced

Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. – Narrow-leaved Willow-herb

Epilobium palustre L. – Marsh Willow-herb – B 

Epilobium strictum Muhl. ex Sprengel – Downy Willow-herb

Ludwigia alternifolia L. – Seedbox, Square-pod Water Primrose – CP 

Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. – Water Purslane, Mud Loosestrife

Oenothera biennis L. – Evening Primrose

Oenothera fruticosa L. – Bushy Evening Primrose, Sundrops – CP 

Oenothera glazioviana Micheli – Garden or Showy Evening Primrose – Introduced

Oenothera oakesiana (A. Gray) Robbins ex S. Watson & Coulter – Cross-shaped Evening Primrose

Oenothera parviflora L. – Small-flowered Evening Primrose

Oenothera perennis L. – Little or Small Sundrops

Oenothera villosa Thunb. – Introduced* 


(Broom-rape Family)

Epifagus virginiana (L.) W.P.C. Barton – Beechdrops

Orobanche uniflora L. – One-flowered Cancer-root


(Wood Sorrel Family)

Oxalis corniculata L. – Creeping Wood Sorrel – Introduced 

Oxalis dillenii Jacq. – Southern or Showy Yellow Woodsorrel

Oxalis stricta L. – Common Yellow Woodsorrel


(Poppy Family)

Chelidonium majus L. – Celandine – Introduced

Glaucium flavum Crantz – Sea or Horned Poppy – Introduced 


(Pokeweed Family)

Phytolacca americana L. – Pokeweed, Pokeberry, Poke


(Plantain Family)

Plantago aristata Michaux – Bracted or Rat-tail Plantain – Introduced 

Plantago lanceolata L. – Narrow-leaved or English Plantain – Introduced

Plantago major L. var. intermedia (DC.) Pilger – Saltmarsh or Saltpond Plantain

Plantago major L. var. major – Common or Dooryard Plantain – Introduced

Plantago maritima L. var. juncoides (Lam.) A. Gray – Seaside Plantain – B 

Plantago rugelii Dcne. – American, Rugel’s or Pale Plantain

Plantago virginica L. – Hoary, White, or Pale-seeded Plantain – Introduced? – CP  


(Sycamore Family)

Platanus occidentalis L. – Sycamore, Buttonwood – Introduced?


(Leadwort Family)

Limonium carolinianum (Walter) Britton – Sea Lavender, Marsh Rosemary, Blue Statice


(Milkwort Family)

Polygala cruciata L. – Cross-leaved Milkwort – CP 

Polygala nuttallii Torrey & A. Gray – Nuttall’s Milkwort – CP 

Polygala polygama Walter – Racemed or Bitter Milkwort

Polygala sanguinea L. – Purple or Common Milkwort 

Polygala verticillata L. – Whorled Milkwort 


(Knotweed Family)

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench – Buckwheat – Introduced

Polygonella articulata (L.) Meisner – Jointweed – CP

 Polygonum amphibium L. – Water Smartweed – Native?

Polygonum arenastrum Jordan ex Boreau – Sand or Dooryard Knotweed, Doorweed – Introduced 

Polygonum arifolium L. var. pubescens (Keller) Fern. – Halberd-leaved Tearthumb

Polygonum aviculare L. – Knotweed, Doorweed – Introduced 

Polygonum buxiforme Small – Box-leaf Knotweed

Polygonum careyi Olney – Carey’s Knotweed or Smartweed

Polygonum convolvulus L. – Black Bindweed, False Buckwheat – Introduced

Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. – Japanese Knotweed, Boston Bamboo – Introduced

Polygonum glaucum Nutt. – Seaside Knotweed – CP 

Polygonum hydopiper L. – Water Pepper – Native?

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michaux var. hydopiperoides – False or Mild Water-pepper

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michaux var. opelousanum (Ridd. Ex Small) W. Stone – Opelousa Smartweed 

Polygonum lapathifolium L. – Willow-weed, Nodding or Dockleaf Smartweed

Polygonum orientale L. – Kiss-Me-Over-the-Garden-Gate – Introduced 

Polygonum pensylvanicum L. var. nesophilum Fern. – Saltpond Smartweed

Polygonum pensylvanicum L. var. pensylvanicum – Pinkweed, Smartweed

Polygonum persicaria L. – Lady’s Thumb – Introduced

Polygonum punctatum Ell. var. confertiflorum (Meisner) Fassett – Annual or Duck Smartweed – CP 

Polygonum ramosissimum Michaux var. ramosissimum – Saltmarsh or Bushy Smartweed

Polygonum ramosissimum Michaux var. prolificum Small – Saltmarsh or Bushy Smartweed

Polygonum sagittatum L. – Arrow-leaf Tearthumb

Polygonum scandens L. var. cristatum (Engelm. & A. Gray) Gleason – Winged Bindweed

Polygonum scandens L. var. scandens – Climbing False Buckwheat, Bindweed

Rumex acetosella L. ssp. angiocarpus (Murb.) Murb. – Sheep or Red Sorrel – Introduced

Rumex acetosella L. var. pyrenaeus (Pourret) Timbal-Lagrave – Pyrenaean Sheep Sorrell – Introduced* 

Rumex x acutus L. – (R. crispus x R. obtusifolius) – Introduced

Rumex britanica L. – Introduced* 

Rumex crispus L. – Curly or Sour Dock – Introduced

Rumex maritimus L. var. fueginus (Phil.) Dusen – Golden or Saltpond Dock – B 

Rumex maritimus L. var. persicarioides (L.) R.S. Mitchell – Golden or Saltpond Dock

Rumex obtusifolius L. – Bitter or Red-veined Dock – Introduced

Rumex orbiculatus A. Gray – Great Water-dock

Rumex salicifolius Weinm. – Willow-leaf Dock – Introduced

Rumex verticillatus L. – Swamp or Water Dock 


(Purslane Family)

Portulaca oleracea L. – Common Purslane, Pusley – Introduced


(Primrose Family)

Anagallis arvensis L. – Scarlet Pimpernel – Introduced

Glaux maritima L. – Sea Milkwort 

Hottonia inflata Ell. – Featherfoil, Water Violet

Lysimachia ciliata L. – Fringed Loosestrife

Lysimachia punctata L. – Spotted or Garden Loosestrife – Introduced 

Lysimachia quadrifolia L. – Whorled Loosestrife

Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B.S.P. – Swamp Candles, Swamp or Bulbil Loosestrife

Samolus valerandi L. ssp. parviflorus (Raf.) Hulten (S. floribundus HBK) – Water Pimpernel, Brookweed – CP 

Trientalis borealis Raf. – Starflower


(Wintergreen Family)

Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh – Striped Pipsissewa, Spotted Wiintergreen

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Barton – Prince’s Pine, Pipsissewa 

Pyrola americana Sweet (P. rotundifolia L.) – Pyrola, Round-leaved Shinleaf

Pyrola elliptica Nutt. – Pyrola, Elliptic Shinleaf 


(Buttercup Family)

Actaea pachypoda Ell. (A. alba (L.) Miller) – Doll’s Eyes, White Baneberry 

Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. – Red Baneberry

Anemone quinquefolia L. – Wood Anemone, Wind Flower

Anemone virginiana L. – Stout Thimbleweed 

Aquilegia canadensis L. – Columbine

Clematis terniflora DC. – Yam-leaf Clematis – Introduced

Ranunculus abortivus L. – Kidney-leaved Buttercup, Crowfoot

Ranunculus acris L. – Tall, Common, or Meadow Buttercup – Introduced 

Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus Withering – White Water Crowfoot

Ranunculus bulbosus L. – Bulbous Buttercup or Crowfoot – Introduced

Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh – Seaside Crowfoot – B 

Ranunculus flabellaris Raf. – Yellow Water Buttercup or Crowfoot

Ranunculus recurvatus Poiret – Hooked Buttercup or Crowfoot

Ranunculus repens L. – Creeping or Spotted Buttercup – Introduced

Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix – White Water Crowfoot

Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Lall. – Purple Meadow Rue

Thalictrum pubescens Pursh – Tall Meadow Rue


(Buckthorn Family)

Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch – Supple-jack – Introduced 

Rhamnus cathartica L. – Common Buckthorn – Introduced

Rhamnus frangula L. – Glossy, Smooth, or European Alder Buckthorn – Introduced 


(Rose Family)

Agrimonia eupatoria L. – Medicinal Agrimony – Intorduced 

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. – Common or Woodland Agrimony

Agrimonia pubescens Wallr. – Downy or Hairy Agrimony

Agrimonia striata Michaux – Woodland Agrimony 

Amelanchier arborea (Michaux f.) Fern. var. laevis (Wiegand) Ahles (A. laevis Wiegand) – Smooth Shadbush or Serviceberry

Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medicus – Thicket Shadbush, Juneberry, Eastern Serviceberry 

Amelanchier nantucketensis Bickn. – Nantucket Shadbush

Amelanchier stolonifera Wiegand (A. spicata (Lam.) Koch) – Running Shadbush

Argentina egedii (Wormsk.) Rydb. ssp. groenlandica (Tratt.) A. Love – Saltmarsh Silverweed 

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. – Red Chokeberry – CP 

Aronia melanocarpa (Michaux) Ell. – Black Chokeberry

Aronia x prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehder – (A. arbutifolia x A. melanocarpa) – Purple Chokeberry 

Crataegus brainerdii Sarg. – Brainerd’s Hawthorn

Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe – Round-leaved or Fireberry Hawthorn

Crataegus crus-galli L. – Cockspur Hawthorn or Thorn – Introduced

Crataegus macrosperma Ashe (Crataegus flabellata (Bosc) K. Koch) – Big-seeded Hawthorn

Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch – Frosted Hawthorn

Fragaria vesca L. – Woodland Strawberry – Intorduced 

Fragaria virginiana Dcne. ssp. glauca (S. Watson) Staudt – Northern Wild Strawberry – B   

Fragaria virginiana Dcne. ssp. virginiana – Wild or Thick-leaved Strawberry – B 

Geum aleppicum Jacq. var. strictum (Ait.) Fern. – Yellow Avens – Introduced 

Geum canadense Jacq. – White Avens

Geum virginianum L. – Virginia or Cream-colored Avens

Malus pumila P. Miller (Pyrus malus L.) – Apple – Introduced

Potentilla argentea L. – Silvery or Hoary Cinquefoil, Five-fingers – Introduced

Potentilla canadensis L. – Dwarf Cinquefoil, Running Five-fingers

Potentilla egedei Wormsk. var. groenlandica (Tratt.) Polunin – Saltmarsh Silverweed

Potentilla norvegica L. – Three-finger, Rough Cinquefoil, Strawberry Weed

Potentilla recta L. – Rough-fruited Cinquefoil, Sulphur Cinquefoil – Introduced

Potentilla simplex Michaux – Old Field Cinquefoil, Five-fingers

Prunus avium (L.) L. – Sweet, Bing, or Mazzard Cherry – Introduced

Prunus maritima Marsh. – Beach Plum – CP  

Prunus nigra Aiton – Canada or Horse Plum – Introduced

Prunus serotina Ehrh. – Black Cherry

Prunus virginiana L. – Choke Cherry

Rosa carolina L. – Pasture or Carolina Rose

Rosa eglanteria L. – Sweetbrier, Eglantine – Introduced

Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray – Multiflora Rose – Introduced

Rosa nitida Willd. – Shining Rose – Native?

Rosa palustris Marsh. – Swamp Rose – CP 

Rosa rugosa Thunb. – Saltspray or Japanese Rose – Introduced

Rosa virginiana P. Miller – Low or Virginia Rose

Rosa wichuraiana Crepin – Memorial Rose – Introduced

Rubus allegheniensis Porter – Common, Sow-teat, or Allegheny Blackberry

Rubus arenicola Blanchard (R. recurvicaulis Blanchard) – New England Sand Blackberry

Rubus bifrons Vest ex Tratt. – Double-leaved Blackberry – Introduced

Rubus canadensis L. – Smooth Blackberry – Native?

Rubus flagellaris Willd. – Northern or Whip Dewberry

Rubus frondosus Bigelow – Leafy or Brainerd’s Blackberry

Rubus hispidus L. – Swamp Dewberry

Rubus idaeus L. ssp. strigosus (Michaux) Focke – Wild Red Raspberry 

Rubus laciniatus Willd. – Evergreen or Cut-leaved Blackberry – Introduced 

Rubus occidentalis L. – Black Raspberry

Rubus pensilvanicus Poiret – Pennsylvania or Highbush Blackberry – CP

Rubus phoeniocolasius Maxim. – Wineberry – Introduced 

Rubus pubescens Raf. – Dwarf or Running Raspberry – Native? 

Rubus vermontanus Blanchard – Vermont Blackberry

Spiraea alba Du Roi var. latifolia (Aiton) Dippel – Meadowsweet

Spiraea tomentosa L. – Steeple Bush, Hardhack


(Coffee or Madder Family)

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. – Buttonbush

Galium aparine L. – Cleavers, Spring Cleavers

Galium asprellum Michaux – Rough Bedstraw

Galium circaezans Michaux var. hypomalacum Fern. – Wild Licorice, Forest Bedstraw

Galium mollugo L. – Field Madder, White Bedstraw – Introduced 

Galium obtusum Bigelow – Blunt-leaved or Large Marsh Bedstraw

Galium palustre L. – Marsh Bedstraw 

Galium pilosum Aiton – Hairy Bedstraw

Galium tinctorium (L.) Scop. – Stiff Marsh Bedstraw

Galium trifidum L. – Tricleft or Three-lobed Bedstraw

Galium triflorum Michaux – Sweet-scented or Woodland Bedstraw 

Galium verum L. ssp. verum – Yellow or Our Lady’s Bedstraw – Introduced

Galium verum L. ssp. wirtgenii (F. W. Schultz) Oborny – Wirtgen’s Bedstraw – Introduced 

Houstonia caerulea L. (Hedyotis caerulea (L.) Hooker) – Bluets, Quaker Ladies

Mitchella repens L. – Partridgeberry, Twinberry


(Willow Family)

Populus alba L. – White or Silver Poplar – Introduced

Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh. – Cottonwood – Introduced

Populus grandidentata Michaux – Big-toothed Aspen

Populus x jackii Sarg. – (P. balsamifera x P. deltoides) – Balm-of-Gilead – Introduced

Populus tremuloides Michaux – Trembling or Quaking Aspen

Salix bebbiana Sarg. – Bebb’s or Long-beaked Willow

Salix cinerea L. – Gray Willow – Introduced

Salix x conifera Wangenh. – (S. discolor x S. humilis)

Salix discolor Muhl. – Large Pussy Willow

Salix humilis Marsh. var. humilis – Small Pussy, Prairie, or Upland Willow

Salix humilis Marsh var. microphylla (Andersson) Fern. (S. occidentalis Walter) – Sage or Dwarf Upland Willow

Salix lucida Muhl. – Shinning Willow

Salix nigra Marsh. – Black Willow

Salix pentandra L. – Bayleaf or Laurel Willow – Introduced

Salix purpurea L. – Basket Willow, Purple Osier – Introduced

Salix x rubens Schrank (S. alba x S. fragilis) – Introduced

Salix x smithiana Willd. (S. caprea x S. viminalis) – Introduced 


(Sandalwood Family)

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. – Bastard Toadflax – CP 


(Pitcher-plant Family)

Sarracenia purpurea L. – Pitcher-plant


(Saxifrage Family)

Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. Ex Hooker – Golden Saxifrage, Water Mat, Water Carpet


(Figwort Family)

Agalinis acuta Pennell – Sandplain Gerardia, Agalinis

Agalinis maritima (Raf.) Raf. – Seaside Gerardia, Saltmarsh Agalinis – CP 

Agalinis paupercula (A. Gray) Britton – Small-flowered Gerardia

Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell var.parviflora (Bentham) Boivin – Small-flowered Gerardia – CP 

Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell var. purpurea – Purple Gerardia, Smooth Agalinis – CP 

Aureolaria flava L. – Smooth False Foxglove 

Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. – Fernleaf False Foxglove

Aureolaria virginica (L.) Pennell – Downy False Foxglove

Chelone glabra L. – White Turtlehead 

Chelone lyonii Pursh – Lyon’s or Pink Turtlehead – Introduced

Digitalis purpurea L. – Common or Purple Foxglove, Digitalis – Introduced

Gratiola aurea Pursh – Golden Pert, Golden or Yellow Hedge-hyssop – CP 

Limosella australis R. Br. – Atlantic Mudwort, Saltpond Stars – B 

Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort. – Blue Toadflax 

Linaria dalmatica Miller – Dalmatian Toadfllax – Introduced 

Linaria vulgaris P. Miller – Butter-and-Eggs, Common Toadflax — Introduced

Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. anagallidea (Michaux) Cooperrider – False Pimpernel – CP  

Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. latifolium Barton – Broad-leaved Cow Wheat

Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. lineare (M. lineare var. americanum (Michaux) Beauv.) – Common Cow Wheat

Mimulus ringens L. – Blue, Allegheny or Longstalk Monkey-flower

Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D. A. Sutton – Blue or Old Filed Toadflax

Pedicularis canadensis L. – Wood Betony, Forest Lousewort

Schwalbea americana L. – Chaffseed – CP 

Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh – American or Hare Figwort

Verbascum blattaria L. – Moth Mullein – Introduced

Verbascum thaspus L. – Mullein, Flannel-plant – Introduced

Veronica arvensis L. – Corn Speedwell – Introduced

Veronica officinalis L. – Common Speedwell, Gypsyweed – Introduced 

Veronica peregrina L. – Purslane Speedwell, Neckweed

Veronica serpyllifolia L. – Thyme-leaved Speedwell – Introduced 

Veronica teucrium L. – Broad-leaved Speedwell – Introduced 


(Tree-of-Heaven Family)

Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle – Tree-of-Heaven – Introduced


(Potato or Nightshade Family)

Datura stramonium L. – Jimsonweed, White Thorn-apple – Introduced

Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertner – Apple-of-Peru – Introduced

Nicotiana longiflora Cav. – Long-flowered Tobacco – Introduced

Petunia x hybrida Vilm. – Garden Petunia – Introduced

Physalis alkekengi L. – Chinese Lantern – Introduced 

Physalis angulata L. – Cutleaf Ground Cherry – Introduced 

Physalis philadelphica Lam. – Tomatillo, Mexican Ground Cherry – Introduced 

Physalis pruinosa L. (P. pubescens L. var. grisea Waterfall) – Ground Cherry, Strawberry Tomato

Solanum carolinense L. – Horse Nettle – Introduced 

Solanum dulcamara L. – Bittersweet Nightshade, Bittersweet – Introduced

Solanum nigrum L. – European Black Nightshade – Introduced

Solanum ptychanthum Dunal – American Black Nightshade

Solanum rostratum Dunal – Buffalo-bur, Sandbur – Introduced

Solanum triflorum Nutt. – Cut-leaved Nightshade – Introduced


(Linden Family)

Tilia x vulgaris Hayne – (T. cordata x T. platyphyllos) – Common Lime – Introduced 


(Elm Family)

Ulmus americana L. – American Elm – Introduced


(Nettle Family)

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. – False Nettle, Bog Hemp – CP 

Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray – Clearweed, Richweed

Urtica dioica L. ssp. dioica – Stinging Nettle – Introduced

Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander – Slender Stinging Nettle


(Verbena Family)

Phryma leptostachya L. – Lopseed

Verbena hastata L. – Blue or Common Vervain

Verbena urticifolia L. – White Vervain 


(Violet Family)

Viola affinis Le Conte – Le Conte’s Violet

Viola blanda Willd. – Sweet White or Woodland White Violet

Viola cucullata Aiton – Blue Marsh Violet

Viola incognita Brainerd – Large-leaved White Violet

Viola lanceolata  L. – Lance-leaf Violet

Viola macloskeyi Lloyd ssp. pallens (Banks ex DC.) M. S. Baker (as var. pallens (Banks) C. L. Hitchc.) – Northern White Violet

Viola pedata L. – Bird’s Foot Violet

Viola x primulifolia L. – Primrose-leaf Violet – CP 

Viola sagittata Aiton – Arrowleaf or Arrowhead Violet – CP 

Viola sororia Willd. – Common Blue or Dooryard Violet

Viola tricolor L. – Johnny-jump-up – Introduced 


(Grape Family)

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (L.) Planchon – Porcelain Berry – Introduced

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planchon – Virginia Creeper, Woodbine

Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Sieb. & Zucc.) Planchon – Boston Ivy – Introduced

Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) A. S. Hitchc. – Grape Woodbine

Vitis aestivalis Michaux var. bicolor Deam (V. aestivalis Michaux var. argentifolia (Munson) Fern.) – Silver-leaved Grape

Vitis labrusca L. – Fox Grape




(Sweetflag Family)

Acorus americanus (Raf.) Raf. (A. calamus L.) – Sweet Flag


(Agave Family)

Yucca filamentosa L. – Yucca, Spanish Bayonet, Adam’s Needle – Introduced 


(Water Plantain Family)

Sagittaria englemanniana J. K. Small – Engelmann’s Arrowhead – CP 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. var. latifolia – Common Arrowhead, Duck Potato

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. var. obtusa (Muhl.) Wieg. – Broad-leaved Arrowhead

Sagittaria teres S, Watson – Pondshore or Quill-leaved Arrowhead – CP 


(Arum Family)

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl. ssp. pusillum (Peck) Huttleston – Dwarf Jack-in-the-Pulpit 

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl. ssp. stewardsonii (Britton) Huttleston – Swamp Jack-in-the-Pulpit – CP 

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl. ssp. triphyllum – Woodland Jack-in- the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip 

Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl. – Arrow Arum – CP  

Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex Nutt. – Skunk Cabbage


(Spiderwort Family)

Commellina communis L. – Dayflower – Introduced

Tradescantia virginiana L. – Virginia Spiderwort – Introduced


(Sedge Family)

Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) C. B. Clarke – Sand Sedge, Vagabond

Carex abscondita Mackenzie – Concealed Sedge

Carex alata Torrey – Winged Sedge – CP 

Carex albicans Willd. ex Sprengel var. albicans*

Carex albicans Willd. ex Sprengel var. emmonsii (Dewey ex Torrey) J. Rettig – Emmon’s Sedge

Carex albolutescens Schwein. – Greenish-white Sedge

Carex annectens (Bicknell) Bicknell – Yellow or Yellow-fruited Fox Sedge – CP 

Carex appalachica Webber & Ball – Appalachian Sedge

Carex atlantica Bailey ssp. atlantica – Atlantic Prickly Sedge

Carex atlantica Bailey ssp. capillacea (Bailey) Reznicek – Threadstem or Howe’s Prickly Sedge 

Carex bebbii Olney – Bebb’s Broom Sedge

Carex blanda Dewey – Woodland Sedge

Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell – Short Fescue Sedge

Carex brunnescens (Pers.) Poiret ex Lam. var. sphaerostachya (Tuckerman) Kukenth. – Brownish Sedge 

Carex bullata Schkuhr ex Willd. – Button Sedge – CP 

Carex canescens L. ssp. disjuncta (Fern.) Toivonen – Silvery Bog Sedge – B 

Carex cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd. – Oval-headed Sedge

Carex communis Bailey – Colonial Sedge 

Carex comosa Boot – Bristly Sedge

Carex contigua Hoppe – European Star Sedge – Introduced

Carex crinita Lam. – Awned or Fringed Sedge

Carex cumulata (Bailey) Mack. – Crowded Sedge 

Carex debilis Michaux var. debilis – Southern Stalked Sedge

Carex debilis Michaux var. rudgei Bailey – Northern Stalked Sedge

Carex digitalis Willd.—Slender-spiked Woodland Sedge

Carex echinata Murray – Prickly Sedge

Carex festucacea Schkuhr ex Willd. – Fescue Sege

Carex hormathodes Fern. – Saltmarsh Straw Sedge (C. straminea Willd. var. invisa W.Boott) – B 

Carex intumescens Rudge – Bladder or Swamp Sedge – CP 

Carex laevivaginata (Kukenth.) Mackenzie – Smooth-sheathed Sedge

Carex lanuginosa Michaux – Broad Woolly-fruited Sedge – B

Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. – Broad Woolly-fruited Sedge 

Carex lepatlea Wahlenb. – Delicate or Bristle-stalked Sedge

Carex limosa L. – Mud Sedge – B 

Carex longii Mackenzie – Long’s Sedge – CP 

Carex leucorum Willd. ex Link Long-beaked Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. – Hop Sedge

Carex lurida Wahlenb. – Sallow Sedge

Carex mitchelliana M. A. Curtis – Mitchell’s Awned Sedge – CP 

Carex muhlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. – Muhlenberg’s Sedge

Carex x olneyi Boot – (C. bullata x C. rostrata)

Carex pallescens L. – Pale or Shiny Green Sedge

Carex pensylvanica Lam. – Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd. – Big Star Sedge

Carex rugosperma Mackenzie – Sand Sedge

Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. – Broom Sedge

Carex seorsa Howe – Swamp Prickly Sedge

Carex silicea Olney – Seabeach Sedge – B 

Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. – Awl-fruited or Wrinkle-sheathed Sedge

Carex straminea Willd. ex Schkuhr – Straw Sedge – CP 

Carex stricta Lam. – Tussock Sedge

Carex swanii (Fern.) Mackenzie – Swan’s Sedge

Carex umbellata – Schkuhr ex Willd. – Short-beaked Sand Sedge, Parasol Sedge

Carex utriculata Boot – Beaked or Bottle Sedge

Carex virescens Muhl. ex Willd. – Ribbed Sedge

Carex viridula Michaux – Little Green Sedge

Carex vulpinoidea Michaux – Fox Sedge

Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torrey – Twig Sedge, Twig Rush

Cyperus bipartitus Torrey – Shining or Red-scaled Flatsedge

Cyperus dentatus Torrey – Pondshore or Toothed Flatsedge

Cyperus diandrus Torrey – Strand or Red-edged Flatsedge

Cyperus esculentus L. – Yellow or Tuberous Flatsedge

Cyperus filicinus Vahl – Saltpond or Seaside Flatsedge – CP 

Cyperus grayi Torrey – Dune or Gray’s Flatsedge – CP 

Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks ssp. macilentus (Fern.) Marcks (C. filiculmis Vahl) – Sand or Button Flatsedge 

Cyperus odoratus L. – Saltmarsh Flatsedge – CP 

Cyperus strigosus L. var. robustior Britton – Big Straw-colored Flatsedge

Cyperus strigosus L. var. strigosus – Straw-colored Flatsedge

Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton – Threeway Sedge

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. – Needle Spike-rush

Eleocharis elliptica Kunth – Orange-fruited Spike-rush

Eleocharis fallax Weatherby – Deceitful Spike-rush

Eleocharis halophila (Fern. & Brack.) Fern. & Brack. – Saline Spike-rush

Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) J. A. Schultes – Soft-stemmed Spike-rush (E. ovata (Roth) Roemer & Schultes)

Eleocharis olivacea Torrey – Olive Spike-rush (E. flavescens (Poiret) Urban)

Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. – Marsh Spike-rush*

Eleocharis parvula (R. & S.) Link ex Bluff, Nees, & Schauer – Saltpong or Dwarf Spike- rush

Eleocharis rostellata (Torrey) Torrey – Beaked Spike-rush – CP

Eleocharis smallii Britton – Small’s Spike-rush

Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) J. A. Schultes – Slender Spike-rush

Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) Schultes* – B   

Eriophorum tenellum Nutt. – Rough or Conifer Cottongrass – B 

Eriophorum virginicum L. – Tawny or Virginia Cottongrass

Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. & S. – Autumn or Northern Fimbry – CP 

Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax ex Engler & Prantl – Lakeshore Hemicarpha – CP 

Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl – White Beak-rush

Rhynchospora capitellata (Michaux) Vahl – Brown Beak-rush – CP 

Rhynchospora fusca (L.) Aiton f. – Sooty Beak-rush – B 

Scirpus americanus Pers. – Saltmarsh Bulrush – CP

Scirpus atrovirens Willd. – Dusky Bulrish 

Scirpus cylindricus (Torrey) Britton – Long-spiked Bulrush

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth – Wool-grass, Common Bulrush – CP 

Scirpus maritimus L. – Seaside Bulrush

Scirpus pungens Vahl – Chairmaker’s Bulrush

Scripus purshianus Fern. – Pursh’s Bulrush

Scirpus robustus Pursh – Saltmarsh Bulrush – CP 

Scirpus tabernaemontani K. C. Gmelin – Soft-stemmed Bulrush

Scleria pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd. var. caroliniana (Willd.) Wood – Papillose Nut-sedge

Scleria reticularis Michaux – Pondshore or Reticulate Nut-sedge – CP 


(Pipewort Family)

Eriocaulon aquaticum (Hill) Druce – Pipewort, White Buttons – B 


(Tape Grass or Frog’s-Bit Family)

Vallisneria americana Michaux – Tape Grass, Wild Celery


(Iris Family)

Iris x germanica L. – Fleur-de-Lis – Introduced 

Iris prismatica Pursh – Slender Blue Flag – CP 

Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow Iris, Water-flag – Introduced

Iris versicolor L. – Northern Blue Flag. Wild Iris

Sisyrinchium angustifolium P. Miller – Stout Blue-eyed Grass – CP 

Sisyrinchium arenicola Bickn. – Sand Blue-eyed Grass*

Sisyrinchium atlanticum Bicknell – Eastern Blue-eyed Grass

Sisyrinchium fuscatum Bicknell – Sandplain Blue-eyed Grass

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene var. crebrum Fern. – Meadow Blue-eyed Grass


(Rush Family)

Juncus acuminatus Michaux – Sharp-fruited Rush

Juncus ambiguus Guss. – Toad Rush*

Juncus articulatus L. – Jointed Rush – B 

Juncus bufonius L. – Toad Rush

Juncus canadensis Gay ex LaHarpe – Marsh or Canadian Rush

Juncus dichotomus Ell. (J. tenuis Willd. var. dichotomus (Ell.) A. Wood) – Forked Rush

Juncus effusus L. var. pylae (LaHarpe) Fern. & Wieg. – Soft or Common Rush – CP 

Juncus effusus L. var. solutus Fern. & Wieg. – Soft or Common Rush – CP 

Juncus gerardii Loisel. – Saltmarsh Rush, Black Grass

Juncus greenei Oakes & Tuckerman – Greene’s Rush

Juncus marginatus Rostk. – Grass-leaf Rush

Juncus militaris Bigelow – Bayonet Rush – B 

Juncus pelocarpus E. Meyer – Pondshore Rush

Juncus subcaudatus (Engelm.) Cov. & Blake – Semitailed Rush – CP 

Juncus tenuis Willd. var. tenuis – Path Rush, Yard Rush

Juncus tenuis Willd. var. williamsii Fern. – William’s Rush

Luzula bulbosa (Wood) Rydb. – Bulbous Wood-rush

Luzula campestris (L.) DC. – Wood-rush – Introduced 

Luzula multiflora (Retz.) Lej. – Common Wood-rush


(Arrow-grass Family)

Triglochin maritimum L. – Saltmarsh Arrow-grass – B 


(Duckweed Family)

Lemna minor L. – Duckweed


(Lily Family)

Aletris farinosa L. – Colicroot, Stargrass

Allium sativum L. – Garlic – Introduced

Allium vineale L. – Field Garlic, Scallions – Introduced

Asparagus officinalis L. – Asparagus – Introduced

Convallaria majalis L. – Lily-of-the-Valley – Introduced 

Hemerocallis fulva L. – Day-Lily – Introduced 

Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Cov. – Yellow Stargrass

Lilium philadelphicum L. – Wood Lily

Lilium superbum L. – Turk’s Cap Lily – CP 

Maianthemum canadense Desf. – Canada Mayflower, False Lily-of-the-Valley

Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link (Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf.) – False Solomon’s Seal

Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link (Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf.) – Starry Solomon’s Seal

Medeola virginiana L. – Indian Cucumber Root

Ornithogalum umbellatum L. – Star-of-Bethlehem – Introduced 

Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh – Solomon’s Seal

Uvularia sessilifolia L. – Little Merrybells, Wild Oats


(Naiad Family)

Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt – Common Naiad

Najas gracillima (A. Braun) Magnus – Slender Naiad


(Orchid Family)

Arethusa bulbosa L. – Arethusa, Dragon’s Mouth

Calopogon tuberosus (L.) B. S. P.  – Grass-pink, Calopogon – CP 

Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf. – Spotted Coralroot

Cypripedium acaule Aiton – Pink Lady’s Slipper, Moccasin-flower

Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz – Helleborine – Introduced

Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. – Downy Rattlesnake Plantain

Isotria verticillata (Willd.) Raf. – Large Whorled Pogonia

Liparis loeselii (L.) L.C. Rich – Loesel’s or Green Twayblade, Fen Orchid – B 

Malaxis unifolia Michaux – Green Adder’s Mouth

Platanthera blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindley – White-fringed Orchis

Platanthera clavellata (Michaux) Luer – Clubspur Orchis

Platanthera flava (L.) Lindley – Pale-green or Tubercled Orchis

Platanthera grandiflora (Bigelow) Lindley – Large Purple-fringed Orchis

Platanthera lacera (Michaux) G. Don – Ragged-fringed Orchis

Platanthera orbiculata (Pursh) Lindley – Round-leaved Orchis

Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindley – Small Purple-fringed Orchis

Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker-Gawler – Rose Pogonia, Snakemouth – CP 

Spiranthes cernus (L.) L. C. Rich – Nodding Ladies’ Tresses

Spiranthes lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer – Southern Slender Ladies’ Tresses 

Spiranthes lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. lacera – Northern Slender Ladies’ Tresses

Spiranthes tuberosa Raf. – Little Ladies’ Tresses

Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray – Spring or Early Ladies’ Tresses

Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. – Cranefly Orchid – CP 


(Grass Family)

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. – Witch Grass*

Agrostis altissima (Walter) Tuckerman – Tall Bentgrass

Agrostis canina L. – Brown or Velvet Bentgrass*

Agrostis capillaris L. – Rhode Island Bentgrass – Introduced 

Agrostis gigantea Roth – Redtop, Black Bentgrass – Introduced

Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) B. S. P. – Southern Ticklegrass

Agrostis perennans (Wlater) Tuckerman – Upland Bentgrass

Agrostis scabra Willd. – Northern Ticklegrass (A. hyemalis (Walter) B. S. P. var. scabra (Willd.) Blomq.)

Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Hudson) Farw. – Marsh or Creeping Bentgrass – B 

Aira caryophyllea L. – Silvery Hairgrass – Introduced

Aira praecox L. – Strict Hairgrass – Introduced

Ammophila breviligulata Fern. – Dunegrass – CP 

Andropogon gerardii Vitmann – Big Bluestem, Turkeyfoot

Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) B. S. P. – Bunched Broom-sedge (A. virginicus L. var.abbreviatus (Hackel) Fern. & Griscom)

Andropogon virginicus L. – Broom-sedge – CP 

Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss. – Puel’s Vernalgrass – Introduced

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. – Sweet Vernalgrass – Introduced

Apera spica-venti (L.) Beauv. – Silky Bentgrass – Introduced 

Aristida dichotoma Michaaux – Poverty Grass – CP 

Aristida longispica Poiret – Slender Needle-grass – CP 

Aristida purpurascens Poiret – Purple Needle-grass – CP 

Avena sativa L. – Wild Oats – Introduced

Bromus commutatus Schrader – Hairy Chess – Introduced

Bromus hordeaceus L. ssp. hordeaceus – Soft Chess – Introduced

Bromus hordeaceus L. ssp. thominii (Hardouin) Hylander – Introduced

Bromus mollis L. – Soft Chess*

Bromus secalinus L. – Cheat, Chess – Introduced

Bromus tectorum L. – Drooping Brome, Downy Chess, Junegrass – Introduced

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michaux) Beauv. – Canada Bluejoint, Reedgrass

Calamagrostis coarctata (Torrey) Eaton – Reed Bluejoint

Cenchrus longispinus (Hackel) Fern. – Common or Field Sandbur, Sandspur – CP 

Chloris verticillata Nutt. – Windmill-grass, Windmill Fingergrass – Introduced

Cinna arundinacea L. – Common, Stout, or broad Woodreed

Corynephorus canescens (L.) Beauv. – Clubgrass, Gray Hairgrass – Introduced

Dactylis glomerata L. – Orchard Grass – Introduced

Danthonia compressa Aust. – Flattened Oatgrass

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J. A. Schultes – Poverty-grass, Wild Oatgrass 

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. – Common Hairgrass 

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. acuminatum – Auburn Panic-grass

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. fasciculatum (Torrey) Freckmann – Fascicled Panic-grass

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. lindheimeri (Nash) Gould & Clark – Lindheimer’s Panic-grass 

Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould – Deer-tongue, Riverside Panic-grass

Dichanthelium columbianum (Scribner) Freckmann – Downy Panic-grass

Dichanthelium columbianum x meridionale

Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann – Commons’ Panic-grass – CP 

Dichanthelium commutatum (J. A. Schultes) Gould –Changeable Panic-grass – CP 

Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould – Depauperate Panic-grass

Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould – Forked Panic-grass – CP 

Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense (Ashe) Molenbrock – Mattamuskeet Panic-grass

Dichanthelium meridionale (Ashe) Freckmann – Pondshore Panic-grass – CP 

Dichanthelium microcarpon (Muhl. ex Ell.) Molenbrock – Tiny-fruited Panic-grass

Dichanthelium oligosanthes (J. A. Schultes) Gould var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould – Scribner’s Panic-grass

Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.) Gould – Broom Panic-grass 

Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Lam.) Gould – Round-fruited Panic-grass – CP 

Dichanthelium villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann – Villous Panic-grass

Digitaria cognata (J. A. Schultes) Pilger – Fall Witchgrass – Introduced

Digitaria filiformis (L.) Koeler – Slender Crabgrass

Digitaria ischaemum (Schreber) Muhl. – Smooth Crabgrass – Introduced

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. – Tall or Large Crabgrass – Introduced

Diplachne maritima Bicknell – Saltpond Grass, Salty Sprangletop (Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) A. Gray) – CP 

Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene – Saltmarsh Spikegrass, Alkali-grass, Saltgrass

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. crus-galli – Barnyard Grass – Introduced

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. frumentacea (Link) W. F. Wight – Japanese Millet – Introduced 

Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern. – Cockspur-grass, Barnyard Grass

Echinochloa walterii (Pursh) Heller – Walter’s Cockspur, Water Millet

Elymus virginicus L. var. halophilus (Bickn.) Wieg. – Saltmarsh Wild Rye

Elymus virginicus L. var. virginicus – Virginia Wild Rye

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. Ex B.D. Jackson – Quack-grass, Couch-grass

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Lut. ex Jamchen – Stink Grass, Skunk Grass – Introduced

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michaux) Nees – Tufted or Carolina Lovegrass

Eragrostis spectablis (Pursh) Steudel – Purple Lovegrass, Tumble-grass

Festuca filiformis Pourret – Hair Fescue – Introduced

Festuca ovina L. – Sheep Fescue – Introduced

Festuca pratensis Hudson – Meadow Fescue – Introduced

Festuca rubra L. – Chewing’s Fescue

Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) Alexeev. – Nodding Fescue

Festuca trachyphylla (Hackel) Krajina – Hard Fescue – Introduced

Glyceria acutifolia Torrey – Sharp-scaled Mannagrass

Glyceria canadensis (Michaux) Trin. – Rattlesnake Grass, Mannagrass – B 

Glyceria obtusa (Muhl.) Trin. – Coastal Mannagrass – B 

Glyceria striata (Lam.) A. S. Hitchc. – Fowl Meadow-grass, Fowl Mannagrass

Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. – Sweet or Indian Grass

Holcus lanatus L. – Velvet-grass – Introduced

Hordeum jubatum L. – Foxtail-barley, Squirrel-tail – Introduced

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. – Rice Cut-grass

Leptoloma cognatum (Schultes) Chase – Fall Witchgrass

Leymus mollis (Trin.) Hara – Sea Lyme-grass, American Dunegrass

Lolium perenne L. var. perenne – Perennial or English Rye-grass – Introduced

Lolium perenne L. var. aristatum Willd. – Italian Rye-grass – Introduced 

Miscanthus sinensis Andersson – Japanese or Chinese Plume-grass – Introduced 

Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poiret) Fern. – Wirestem or Leafy Muhly

Muhlenbergia schreberi J. F. Gmelin – Nimblewill

Panicum capillare L. – Witch Grass

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michaux var. dichotomiflorum – Fall Panic-grass

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michaux var. puritanorum Svenson – Svenson’s Panic-grass

Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. pubescens (Vasey) Lelong – Long-leaved Panic- grass

Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. rigidulum – Flat-stemmed Panic-grass

Panicum verrucosum Muhl. – Warty Panic-grass – CP 

Panicum virgatum L. var. spissum Linder – Saltmarsh Switchgrass 

Paspalum leave Michaux var. circulare (Nash) W. Stone ex Fern. – Field or Meadow Beadgrass 

Paspalum setaceum Michaux var. muhlenbergii (Nash) D. Banks – Muhlenberg’s Beadgrass

Paspalum setaceum Michaux var. psammophilum (Nash) D. Banks – Sand Beadgrass – CP 

Paspalum setaceum Michaux var. setaceum – Small-fruited or Slender Beadgrass – CP

Phalaris arundinacea L. – Reed Canary Grass 

Phleum pratense L. ssp. nodosum (L.) Arcang. – Slender Timothy – Introduced

Phleum pratense L. ssp. pratense – Timothy – Intoduced

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel – Phragmites, Common Reed

Piptochaetium avenaceum (L.) Parodi – Black Oatgrass – CP 

Poa annua L. – Annual Bluegrass, Low Speargrass – Introduced

Poa compressa L. – Canada or Flat-stemmed Bluegrass – Introduced

Poa palustris L. – Fowl Meadow Grass

Poa pratensis L. – Junegrass, Kentucky Bluegrass – Introduced 

Poa trivalis L. – Rough Bluegrass – Introduced

Puccinellia tenella (Lange) Holmb. ssp. alascana (Scribner & Merrill) Tzvelev – Northern Alkali-grass (P. langeana (Berlin) Sorensen ssp. alaskana (Scribner & Merrill) Sorensen) – B  

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michaux) Nash – Little Bluestem, Broom or Prairie Beardgrass – CP 

Setaria faberi Herrm. Ex Rosen – Foxtail Grass, Nodding or Giant Foxtail – Introduced

Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. – Yellow Foxtail – Introduced

Setaria parviflora (Poiret) Kerguelen – Bristly or Saltmarsh Foxtail (S. geniculata (Lam.) Beauv.) – CP 

Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. – Green Foxtail, Bottle Grass – Introduced

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash – Indian Grass

Spartina alterniflora Loisel – Smooth or Saltwater Cordgrass – CP 

Spartina x caespitosa A. A. Eaton – (S. patens x S. pectinata)

Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth – Salt Reedgrass

Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. var. monogyna (M. A. Curtis) Fern. – Tall Salt-hay, White Rush

Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. var. patens – Salt-hay, Salt-meadow Grass, Cordgrass

Spartina pectinata Link – Freshwater or Prairie Cordgrass, Slough-grass – B 

Sporobolus neglectus Nash – Small Dropseed – Introduced 

Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torrey ex A. Gray) Wood – Poverty Grass,

Torreyochloa pallida (Torrey) Church – Pale or Torrey’s Mannagrass (Puccinellia pallida R. T. Clausen)

Tridens flavus (L.) A. S. Hitchc. – Purpletop, Tall Retop – Introduced? – CP 

Triplasis purpurea (Walter) Chapman – Gama-grass, Sesame Grass

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. – Gama-grass 

Vulpia myuros (L.) K. C. Gmelin var. hirsuta Hackel – Hairy Moustail Fescue – Introduced 

Vulpia myuros (L.) K. C. Gmelin var. myuros – Mousetail or Rattail Fescue – Introduced 

Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb. var. glauca (Nutt.) Fern. – Six-weeks Fescue

Zizania palustris L. – Slender Wild Rice


(Water Hyacinth Family)

Pontederia cordata L. – Pickerel Weed


(Pondweed Family)

Potamogeton bicupulatus Fern. – Hairlike Pondweed (P. diversifolius Raf. var. trichophyllus Morong.)

Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. – Ribbon-leaf or Surface Pondweed

Potamogeton foliosus Raf. – Leafy Pondweed

Potamogeton gramineus L. – Grass-leaf Pondweed

Potamogeton oakesianus Robbins – Oakes’ Pondweed – CP

Potamogeton pectinatus L. – Sago Pondweed

Potamogeton perfoliatus L. – Clasping Pondweed, Redhead Grass

Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerman – Spotted Pondweed – CP 

Potamogeton pusillus L. var. pusillus – Tiny Pondweed

Potamogeton pusillus L. var. tenuissimus Mert. & Koch – Slender Tiny Pondweed


(Ditch Grass Family)

Ruppia maritima L. – Ditch Grass, Widgeon Grass – B 


(Catbrier Family)

Smilax glauca Walter var. leurophylla Blake – Sawbrier

Smilax herbacea L. – Carrion-flower, Jacob’s Ladder

Smilax rotundifolia L. – Common Greenbrier, Catbrier, Bullbrier – CP 


(Bur-reed Family)

Sparganium americanum Nutt. – Common Bur-reed

Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong – Shining Bur-reed

Sparganium angustifolium Michaux – Narrow-leaved Bur-reed*

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. ex A. Gray – Giant or Broad-fruited Bur-reed – CP 


(Cattail Family)

Typha angustifolia L. – Narrow-leaved Cattail 

Typha latifolia L. Broad-leaved or Common Cattail


(Yellow-eyed Grass Family)

Xyris difformis Chapman – Yellow-eyed Grass – CP 

Xyris torta Small – Twisted Yellow-eyed Grass


(Eel Grass Family)

Zostera marina L. var. stenophylla Aschers. & Graebn. – Eel Grass, Grass-wrack